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Objavljeno 23-10-2020

I princìpi di eguaglianza e di non discriminazione, una prospettiva di diritto comparato - Italia

23-10-2020

Questo studio fa parte di un progetto più ampio, il cui scopo è quello di analizzare, nella prospettiva del diritto comparato, i princìpi di eguaglianza e di non discriminazione in diversi Stati ed organizzazioni internazionali. Il presente studio è dedicato all’Italia, pur nella consapevolezza dell’importanza delle fonti internazionali e dell’Unione Europea in materia. A tal fine, dopo una breve introduzione di carattere storico generale, sono state prese in esame le vicende normative che hanno ...

Questo studio fa parte di un progetto più ampio, il cui scopo è quello di analizzare, nella prospettiva del diritto comparato, i princìpi di eguaglianza e di non discriminazione in diversi Stati ed organizzazioni internazionali. Il presente studio è dedicato all’Italia, pur nella consapevolezza dell’importanza delle fonti internazionali e dell’Unione Europea in materia. A tal fine, dopo una breve introduzione di carattere storico generale, sono state prese in esame le vicende normative che hanno interessato il principio di eguaglianza, nelle sue varie forme, nell’Italia repubblicana. Il punto di partenza è stato, ovviamente, la Costituzione, mentre le altre fonti sono state ordinate in ragione del mezzo di comunicazione che, di volta in volta, disciplinano. Ampia attenzione è stata dedicata alla giurisprudenza. Nell’impossibilità di dare conto di tutto l’immenso materiale disponibile, si sono selezionati alcuni casi particolarmente significativi. Sono stati identificati, infine, i principali nodi problematici che occorre tuttora sciogliere, in un contesto socio-politico mondiale nel quale le diseguaglianze, per molti strati della popolazione, si sono addirittura approfondite.

Vanjski autor

Prof. Dr. Massimo Luciani

EU agricultural policy and health: Some historical and contemporary issues

23-10-2020

This paper examines the links between agriculture and health in the EU. Following an explanation of the links between agriculture, nutrition and diet, a chronology of some of the key studies and developments in this field is provided. This begins with an examination of efforts in the early 1970s to address high rates of cardiovascular disease before moving onto more recent assessments of the role of the EU's common agricultural policy in relation to nutrition-related public health matters, and the ...

This paper examines the links between agriculture and health in the EU. Following an explanation of the links between agriculture, nutrition and diet, a chronology of some of the key studies and developments in this field is provided. This begins with an examination of efforts in the early 1970s to address high rates of cardiovascular disease before moving onto more recent assessments of the role of the EU's common agricultural policy in relation to nutrition-related public health matters, and the extent to which the policy has influenced current dietary patterns. A brief overview is provided of the health status of EU citizens, including some key features and trends in EU health, diets and nutrition. The paper also takes account of the impact of the coronavirus pandemic, including its implications for health considerations across all policies. Drawing on the range of studies and commentaries consulted, the paper concludes with a number of ways in which agriculture and agricultural policies can address or have an impact on the EU's public health challenges.

European Parliament’s Banking Union reports in 2015 - 2019

21-10-2020

This briefing provides an overview of the European Parliament’s expectations and priorities for the Banking Union as set out in its annual Banking Union reports. The first section of this briefing provides a short overview of the 2019 Banking Union report, the ECB Banking Supervisor’s response, as well as concrete actions expected from the Single Resolution Board, who as yet have not provided a formal response to any of Parliament’s Banking Union reports. In order to better contextualise the themes ...

This briefing provides an overview of the European Parliament’s expectations and priorities for the Banking Union as set out in its annual Banking Union reports. The first section of this briefing provides a short overview of the 2019 Banking Union report, the ECB Banking Supervisor’s response, as well as concrete actions expected from the Single Resolution Board, who as yet have not provided a formal response to any of Parliament’s Banking Union reports. In order to better contextualise the themes of latest Banking Union report, the subsequent section addresses the main themes raised in previous Banking Union reports (2015-2018). The annex of the briefing includes a comparison of the positions taken by the European Parliament in its Banking Union reports in the following policy areas: banking developments and structures; institutional and organisational issues; regulatory issues; completing the banking union; risk assessment; supervisory issues and priorities; crisis management; policies related to anti-money-laundering; and climate and sustainability issues.

Access to Abortion Services for Women in the EU - Slovakia

23-10-2020

This paper, commissioned by the European Parliament’s Policy Department for Citizens’ Rights and Constitutional Affairs at the request of the FEMM Committee, provides basic information on access to abortion services in Slovakia. The legal status of abortions in the country is under permanent pressure despite the legally binding decision by the Constitutional Court back in 2007 which safeguarded women´s right to free choice. Eleven proposals to restrict abortion have been presented in the National ...

This paper, commissioned by the European Parliament’s Policy Department for Citizens’ Rights and Constitutional Affairs at the request of the FEMM Committee, provides basic information on access to abortion services in Slovakia. The legal status of abortions in the country is under permanent pressure despite the legally binding decision by the Constitutional Court back in 2007 which safeguarded women´s right to free choice. Eleven proposals to restrict abortion have been presented in the National Parliament, in the last two years. Medical abortion is not available in the country, and together with conscientious objection applied in health services and current COVID-19 pandemics access to abortion services is further limited.

Vanjski autor

Olga Pietruchova, independent gender equality expert, Slovakia.

Objavljeno 22-10-2020

Los principios de igualdad y no discriminación, una perspectiva de Derecho Comparado - España

22-10-2020

Este estudio forma parte de un proyecto destinado a sentar las bases de una comparación integrada y correlacionada de la regulación del principio de igualdad y no discriminación entre diferentes ordenamientos jurídicos positivos. Las siguientes páginas contienen, en lo relativo a España, el análisis de su legislación vigente, de la jurisprudencia constitucional, así como un paralelo estudio dogmático sobre el concepto y naturaleza de ese derecho, prestando particular atención a sus distintos límites ...

Este estudio forma parte de un proyecto destinado a sentar las bases de una comparación integrada y correlacionada de la regulación del principio de igualdad y no discriminación entre diferentes ordenamientos jurídicos positivos. Las siguientes páginas contienen, en lo relativo a España, el análisis de su legislación vigente, de la jurisprudencia constitucional, así como un paralelo estudio dogmático sobre el concepto y naturaleza de ese derecho, prestando particular atención a sus distintos límites y a las políticas sectoriales positivas o pro activas. Se pasa asimismo revista a sus múltiples desafíos, y a la problemática de la extensión indiscriminada de ciertas medidas de discriminación positiva e inversa que puedan desvirtuar el alcance general del principio de igualdad. La Constitución española de 1978 concibe el principio de igualdad y no discriminación como una piedra angular de todo el edificio constitucional, especialmente en el ámbito de los derechos y libertades públicas, lo que supuso que toda situación de desigualdad existente, al momento de su entrada en vigor, fuera considerada ya incompatible con el nuevo orden de valores. Las disposiciones jurídico-constitucionales sobre la igualdad son, por lo demás, varias. En primer lugar, el art. 14 de la Constitución consagra la igualdad ante la ley (igualdad formal) de todos los españoles, excluyendo toda clase de discriminación, con mención expresa de determinados motivos que son considerados supuestos de discriminación cualificada (nacimiento, raza, sexo, religión, opinión). En segundo término, el art. 1.1 de la Norma fundamental concibe la igualdad como uno de los valores superiores del ordenamiento jurídico español. Finalmente, el art. 9.2 del Texto constitucional recoge la ineludible igualdad material, que se aúna así a la igualdad formal, como un mandato dirigido a los poderes públicos para la remoción de todos los obstáculos que impidan su efectiva realización. La jurisprudencia dictada por el Tribunal Constitucional es de enorme importancia y significación, puesto que desde sus inicios prefiguró su ámbito de aplicación hasta llegar a su delimitación actual, al tiempo que posibilitó su desarrollo y protección más generosa.

Vanjski autor

Prof. Dr. Pedro GONZÁLEZ-TREVIJANO SÁNCHEZ

Coronavirus: The second wave [What Think Tanks are thinking]

22-10-2020

A resurgence in the number of coronavirus infections since the summer has evidently turned into a second wave of the pandemic, which has now hit many European Union countries. The pandemic is putting renewed pressure on European health systems, and authorities are introducing stringent but targeted preventive measures in a bid to cushion the negative economic impacts while preserving people's health and ensuring hospitals are not once again overwhelmed. An increasing number of EU countries are clamping ...

A resurgence in the number of coronavirus infections since the summer has evidently turned into a second wave of the pandemic, which has now hit many European Union countries. The pandemic is putting renewed pressure on European health systems, and authorities are introducing stringent but targeted preventive measures in a bid to cushion the negative economic impacts while preserving people's health and ensuring hospitals are not once again overwhelmed. An increasing number of EU countries are clamping down on travel and imposing strict social distancing measures, such as night-time curfews in major cities and limits on social contacts, although most schools and businesses remain open throughout Europe. The International Monetary Fund said in its October World Economic Outlook (WEO) that global growth in 2020 is projected at -4.4 per cent owing to the pandemic, a less severe contraction than forecast in the June 2020 WEO. The revision reflects better than anticipated second quarter GDP outturns – mostly in advanced economies, where activity bounced back sooner than expected following the scaling back of national lockdowns in May and June – as well as indications of a stronger recovery in the third quarter. This note offers links to recent commentaries, studies and reports from major international think tanks on pandemic related issues. Earlier think tank studies on the issue can be found in the 'What Think Tanks are Thinking' of 25 September.

Another revolution in Kyrgyzstan?

22-10-2020

Kyrgyzstan is the only ex-Soviet Central Asian country to have achieved a measure of democracy, but it is also highly volatile. Massive protests broke out after irregularities in the October 2020 parliamentary elections, toppling the government. Ex-convict, Sadyr Japarov, is now the country's prime minister and acting president. New parliamentary and presidential elections are planned for December 2020 and January 2021.

Kyrgyzstan is the only ex-Soviet Central Asian country to have achieved a measure of democracy, but it is also highly volatile. Massive protests broke out after irregularities in the October 2020 parliamentary elections, toppling the government. Ex-convict, Sadyr Japarov, is now the country's prime minister and acting president. New parliamentary and presidential elections are planned for December 2020 and January 2021.

Monitoring, reporting and verification of CO2 emissions from maritime transport

22-10-2020

In February 2019, the Commission adopted a proposal to revise the EU system for monitoring, reporting and verification of CO2 emissions from maritime transport, in order to align it with the global data collection system introduced by the International Maritime Organization (IMO). The existing EU system requires ships above 5 000 gross tonnes using European ports to monitor and report fuel consumption and CO2 emissions per voyage and on an annual basis, starting with the year 2018. The system entered ...

In February 2019, the Commission adopted a proposal to revise the EU system for monitoring, reporting and verification of CO2 emissions from maritime transport, in order to align it with the global data collection system introduced by the International Maritime Organization (IMO). The existing EU system requires ships above 5 000 gross tonnes using European ports to monitor and report fuel consumption and CO2 emissions per voyage and on an annual basis, starting with the year 2018. The system entered into force on 1 March 2018, and reporting starts with the year 2019. The proposed revision aims to facilitate the simultaneous application of the two systems, while preserving the objectives of the current EU legislation. The Council’s mandate for negotiations with the Parliament was adopted on 25 October 2019. In the European Parliament, the ENVI committee has appointed Jutta Paulus (Greens/EFA, Germany) as rapporteur for the file. On 16 September 2020, the Parliament adopted its position and gave ENVI the mandate to start trilogue negotiations. Second edition. The 'EU Legislation in Progress' briefings are updated at key stages throughout the legislative procedure.

Towards a mandatory EU system of due diligence for supply chains

22-10-2020

The growth of international supply chains has undoubtedly brought enormous benefits to developing countries, but at the same time it has had certain negative impacts, relating for instance to violations of human and labour rights, including forced labour and child labour, environmental damage, land grabbing, and corruption. Multinational companies have gained unprecedented power, creating asymmetries in relation to weak regulation and enforcement in developing countries. For several decades, multinational ...

The growth of international supply chains has undoubtedly brought enormous benefits to developing countries, but at the same time it has had certain negative impacts, relating for instance to violations of human and labour rights, including forced labour and child labour, environmental damage, land grabbing, and corruption. Multinational companies have gained unprecedented power, creating asymmetries in relation to weak regulation and enforcement in developing countries. For several decades, multinational companies have been encouraged to take responsibility for their supply chains on a voluntary basis. Whereas in some sectors, where violations have been most egregious, particularly in the extractive industries or in timber extraction, mandatory frameworks have already been adopted at EU level, for others it was hoped that the voluntary approach, guided by several international frameworks, would suffice. The evidence available, however, from academic research, civil society organisations, implementation of the EU Non-financial Reporting Directive, and studies commissioned by the EU institutions, has made it clear that the voluntary approach is not enough. Against this background, many voices consider that the EU should adopt mandatory due diligence legislation. Human rights and the environment stand out as two areas where such legislation would be both most needed and most effective. Beyond its expected intrinsic positive impact, such legislation would have important advantages, such as creating a level playing field among all companies operating on the EU market, bringing legal clarity, and establishing effective enforcement and sanction mechanisms, while possibly improving access to remedy for those affected, by establishing civil and legal liability for companies. The European Commission has undertaken some preliminary steps, including publishing a study and conducting public consultations, towards a possible legislative initiative on mandatory due diligence, but such an initiative has not been included in its 2021 work programme.

The environmental impacts of plastics and micro-plastics use, waste and pollution: EU and national measures

22-10-2020

This study, commissioned by the European Parliament’s Policy Department for Citizens’ Rights and Constitutional Affairs at the request of the Committee on Petitions (PETI), focuses on the pervasive use of plastics and reviews the rising consensus on the potential eco-toxicological impacts of these materials, in particular of smaller plastic particles, dubbed microplastics. It discusses possible mitigation strategies aimed at curtailing the prevalence of (micro)plastics, as well as emerging alternatives ...

This study, commissioned by the European Parliament’s Policy Department for Citizens’ Rights and Constitutional Affairs at the request of the Committee on Petitions (PETI), focuses on the pervasive use of plastics and reviews the rising consensus on the potential eco-toxicological impacts of these materials, in particular of smaller plastic particles, dubbed microplastics. It discusses possible mitigation strategies aimed at curtailing the prevalence of (micro)plastics, as well as emerging alternatives and their environmental adequacy. Propelled by increasing awareness of the impacts of plastics and by public opinion, in recent years a multitude of norms, regulations, laws and recommendations have been proposed and/or implemented. These vary greatly across local, national, regional and international levels, and it is not clear what the beneficial impacts of these tools are. This study assesses these existing instruments, analyses whether they are based on sound scientific data, and discusses foreseeable challenges that could restrain the relevance and suitability of existing and future legislative proposals.

Vanjski autor

João PINTO DA COSTA (lead author), Teresa ROCHA-SANTOS, Armando C. DUARTE, Department of Chemistry and CESAM, University of Aveiro, Portugal

Buduća događanja

26-10-2020
European Gender Equality Week - October 26-29, 2020
Drugo događanje -
FEMM TRAN LIBE BECA AIDA INTA CULT EMPL DROI SEDE DEVE
26-10-2020
Joint LIBE - FEMM Hearing on Trafficking in human beings
Saslušanje -
LIBE FEMM
27-10-2020
Hearing on Rebuilding fish stocks in the Mediterranean: next steps
Saslušanje -
PECH

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